Monthly Archives: February 2009

I wrote a WP plugin

I wrote my first WordPress plugin which will help rewriting js, css and theme file’s url to your own CDN network. So you don’t have to hack wordpress files.

You can download it here.

Pylons 0.9.7 released

Pylons 0.9.7 is released today.

Pylons is my new favorite web application framework. It was codeigniter, webpy and django.

A lot Cloud buzz today

I have used ubuntu 8.1 ec2 release for a while. I am actually very impressed by the beta version ubuntu cloud. It is a very lean version of ubuntu server. The default configuration run very fast with minimal number of services comparing to CentOS or Redhat. It is fast.

Meanwhile stock market indexes fall to 1997 levels, and Nasdaq took the lead.

Generate ShoreWall blacklist from Spamhaus and DShield

I wrote a bash script to automatically generate Shorewall blacklist from Spamhaus drop list and dshield.org’s block list .

Do not run this script automatically if ssh is the only mean you connect to your server, because you can accidentally blacklist yourself. And you may not run it more often then once per hour due to spamhaus limitation.

#!/bin/sh
 
echo "#ADDRESS/SUBNET         PROTOCOL        PORT" > /tmp/blacklist
wget  -q -O - http://feeds.dshield.org/block.txt | awk --posix '/^[0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,3}\.0\t/ { print $1 "/24";}' >> /tmp/blacklist
wget -q -O - http://www.spamhaus.org/drop/drop.lasso | awk --posix '/^[0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,3}\// { print $1;}' >> /tmp/blacklist
echo "#LAST LINE -- ADD YOUR ENTRIES BEFORE THIS ONE -- DO NOT REMOVE" >> /tmp/blacklist
mv /tmp/blacklist /etc/shorewall/blacklist
 
shorewall refresh &>/dev/null

I also use fail2ban to generate dynamic shorewall ban list.

UPDATE: And don’t forget enable blacklist option in /etc/shorewall/shorewall.conf

BLACKLIST_DISPOSITION=DROP

Nginx vs Cherokee

I did a micro benchmark for quick comparison between nginx and cherokee on Linode 540 VPS. Result may differ on a dedicate server. static file(100MB)

Cherokee
Benchmarking localhost (be patient)
Completed 100 requests
Completed 200 requests
Finished 200 requests

Server Software:        Cherokee/0.99.0
Server Hostname:        localhost
Server Port:            80

Document Path:          /100mb.test
Document Length:        104857600 bytes

Concurrency Level:      20
Time taken for tests:   30.696 seconds
Complete requests:      200
Failed requests:        0
Write errors:           0
Total transferred:      20971557200 bytes
HTML transferred:       20971520000 bytes
Requests per second:    6.52 [#/sec] (mean)
Time per request:       3069.623 [ms] (mean)
Time per request:       153.481 [ms] (mean, across all concurrent requests)
Transfer rate:          667184.09 [Kbytes/sec] received

Connection Times (ms)
              min  mean[+/-sd] median   max
Connect:        0    1   0.2      1       1
Processing:  3004 3069  73.9   3048    3228
Waiting:        0    1   0.2      1       2
Total:       3004 3069  73.9   3048    3228

Percentage of the requests served within a certain time (ms)
  50%   3048
  66%   3068
  75%   3071
  80%   3191
  90%   3228
  95%   3228
  98%   3228
  99%   3228
 100%   3228 (longest request)
Nginx
Benchmarking localhost (be patient)
Completed 100 requests
Completed 200 requests
Finished 200 requests

Server Software:        nginx/0.6.35
Server Hostname:        localhost
Server Port:            80

Document Path:          /100mb.test
Document Length:        104857600 bytes

Concurrency Level:      20
Time taken for tests:   30.543 seconds
Complete requests:      200
Failed requests:        0
Write errors:           0
Total transferred:      20971571000 bytes
HTML transferred:       20971520000 bytes
Requests per second:    6.55 [#/sec] (mean)
Time per request:       3054.277 [ms] (mean)
Time per request:       152.714 [ms] (mean, across all concurrent requests)
Transfer rate:          670536.80 [Kbytes/sec] received

Connection Times (ms)
              min  mean[+/-sd] median   max
Connect:        0    1   0.2      0       1
Processing:  3006 3054  32.6   3047    3106
Waiting:        0    1   0.4      1       3
Total:       3006 3054  32.6   3048    3107
ERROR: The median and mean for the initial connection time are more than twice the standard
       deviation apart. These results are NOT reliable.

Percentage of the requests served within a certain time (ms)
  50%   3048
  66%   3069
  75%   3087
  80%   3098
  90%   3107
  95%   3107
  98%   3107
  99%   3107
 100%   3107 (longest request)

Small html file (468 bytes)

Nginx
Server Software:        nginx/0.6.35
Server Hostname:        localhost
Server Port:            80

Document Path:          /
Document Length:        468 bytes

Concurrency Level:      200
Time taken for tests:   0.123 seconds
Complete requests:      1000
Failed requests:        0
Write errors:           0
Total transferred:      737100 bytes
HTML transferred:       491400 bytes
Requests per second:    8150.03 [#/sec] (mean)
Time per request:       24.540 [ms] (mean)
Time per request:       0.123 [ms] (mean, across all concurrent requests)
Transfer rate:          5866.59 [Kbytes/sec] received

Connection Times (ms)
              min  mean[+/-sd] median   max
Connect:        3    8   1.7      9      11
Processing:     6   14   3.3     14      24
Waiting:        3   11   3.3     12      23
Total:         14   22   2.6     22      33

Percentage of the requests served within a certain time (ms)
  50%     22
  66%     23
  75%     23
  80%     24
  90%     25
  95%     26
  98%     29
  99%     30
 100%     33 (longest request)
Cherokee
Server Software:        Cherokee/0.99.0
Server Hostname:        localhost
Server Port:            80

Document Path:          /
Document Length:        468 bytes

Concurrency Level:      200
Time taken for tests:   0.139 seconds
Complete requests:      1000
Failed requests:        0
Write errors:           0
Total transferred:      732224 bytes
HTML transferred:       509184 bytes
Requests per second:    7203.83 [#/sec] (mean)
Time per request:       27.763 [ms] (mean)
Time per request:       0.139 [ms] (mean, across all concurrent requests)
Transfer rate:          5151.19 [Kbytes/sec] received

Connection Times (ms)
              min  mean[+/-sd] median   max
Connect:        6   11   2.5     12      16
Processing:     7   14   3.9     14      27
Waiting:        3   10   3.9      9      19
Total:         16   25   3.5     25      33

Percentage of the requests served within a certain time (ms)
  50%     25
  66%     27
  75%     27
  80%     28
  90%     29
  95%     31
  98%     32
  99%     32
 100%     33 (longest request)
Varnish
Server Software:        ----------
Server Hostname:        localhost
Server Port:            80

Document Path:          /
Document Length:        468 bytes

Concurrency Level:      200
Time taken for tests:   0.141 seconds
Complete requests:      1000
Failed requests:        0
Write errors:           0
Total transferred:      879491 bytes
HTML transferred:       528372 bytes
Requests per second:    7067.44 [#/sec] (mean)
Time per request:       28.299 [ms] (mean)
Time per request:       0.141 [ms] (mean, across all concurrent requests)
Transfer rate:          6070.07 [Kbytes/sec] received

Connection Times (ms)
              min  mean[+/-sd] median   max
Connect:        6   11   2.5     11      16
Processing:     6   14   3.5     13      24
Waiting:        3   10   3.5      9      21
Total:         17   25   3.4     25      38

Percentage of the requests served within a certain time (ms)
  50%     25
  66%     26
  75%     26
  80%     27
  90%     29
  95%     31
  98%     33
  99%     34
 100%     38 (longest request)

Small image file (23k bytes)

Nginx
Server Software:        nginx/0.6.35
Server Hostname:        localhost
Server Port:            80

Document Path:          /cherokee-logo.png
Document Length:        23619 bytes

Concurrency Level:      200
Time taken for tests:   0.139 seconds
Complete requests:      1000
Failed requests:        0
Write errors:           0
Total transferred:      24624128 bytes
HTML transferred:       24379632 bytes
Requests per second:    7171.34 [#/sec] (mean)
Time per request:       27.889 [ms] (mean)
Time per request:       0.139 [ms] (mean, across all concurrent requests)
Transfer rate:          172449.16 [Kbytes/sec] received

Connection Times (ms)
              min  mean[+/-sd] median   max
Connect:        0    5   3.6      4      16
Processing:     0   20   6.1     23      29
Waiting:        0   15   5.7     17      26
Total:          6   25   5.5     26      45

Percentage of the requests served within a certain time (ms)
  50%     26
  66%     27
  75%     27
  80%     27
  90%     28
  95%     35
  98%     41
  99%     43
 100%     45 (longest request)
Cherokee
Server Software:        Cherokee/0.99.0
Server Hostname:        localhost
Server Port:            80

Document Path:          /cherokee-logo.png
Document Length:        23619 bytes

Concurrency Level:      200
Time taken for tests:   0.180 seconds
Complete requests:      1000
Failed requests:        0
Write errors:           0
Total transferred:      26518338 bytes
HTML transferred:       26287947 bytes
Requests per second:    5564.92 [#/sec] (mean)
Time per request:       35.939 [ms] (mean)
Time per request:       0.180 [ms] (mean, across all concurrent requests)
Transfer rate:          144113.78 [Kbytes/sec] received

Connection Times (ms)
              min  mean[+/-sd] median   max
Connect:        4   11   3.4     11      18
Processing:    11   21   5.0     21      36
Waiting:        3    8   3.7      7      24
Total:         21   32   4.7     33      43

Percentage of the requests served within a certain time (ms)
  50%     33
  66%     34
  75%     35
  80%     36
  90%     38
  95%     40
  98%     41
  99%     43
 100%     43 (longest request)
Varnish
Server Software:        --------------
Server Hostname:        localhost
Server Port:            80

Document Path:          /cherokee-logo.png
Document Length:        23619 bytes

Concurrency Level:      200
Time taken for tests:   0.154 seconds
Complete requests:      1000
Failed requests:        0
Write errors:           0
Total transferred:      23933000 bytes
HTML transferred:       23619000 bytes
Requests per second:    6498.44 [#/sec] (mean)
Time per request:       30.777 [ms] (mean)
Time per request:       0.154 [ms] (mean, across all concurrent requests)
Transfer rate:          151882.08 [Kbytes/sec] received

Connection Times (ms)
              min  mean[+/-sd] median   max
Connect:        4   11   3.0     11      17
Processing:    10   18   4.5     17      33
Waiting:        2    6   2.1      5      12
Total:         15   29   4.6     29      48

Percentage of the requests served within a certain time (ms)
  50%     29
  66%     29
  75%     30
  80%     31
  90%     33
  95%     36
  98%     41
  99%     46
 100%     48 (longest request)

Nginx is the fastest to serve small static file on my VPS. No significant difference in serving larging file.

Speedup Mysql and Webserver with Intel Compiler and tcmalloc

After reading some recent benchmark reguarding tcmalloc  performance on mysql. I decide to rebuild my whole webhosting stack with it.

ICC is intel’s c++ compiler, which has faster performance is also memtioned on mysql website.

Most distros should already has google performance tools prepackaged. Installation of ICC is slightly more complicated, you can download it directly from intel’s website which is free download for non-commercial use. Archlinux and Gentoo both have packaged installer. On ubuntu/debian system you probably also need build-essential and apt-build to rebuilt packages. On archlinux you will need base-devel and abs.

For most packages, the following bash script can be used before configuration/make step.  Don’t ommit the dot on first line and change the path of iccvars.sh to your installation directory.

 . /opt/intel/Compiler/11.0/081/bin/iccvars.sh intel64
CC=icc
CFLAGS="-xHOST -O3 -no-prec-div "
LD=xild
AR=xiar
CXX=icpc
CXXFLAGS="-xHOST -O3 -no-prec-div "
LDFLAGS=-ltcmalloc_minimal
export CC CFLAGS LD AR CXX CXXFLAGS LDFLAGS

These setting seems safe for all packages. Here is a summary of package specific cflags setting.

 MysqlCherokeeNginxVarnishPHPMemcached
-staticNoNoNoNoN/ANo
-ipoNoNoYesNoN/AYes
LDFLAGS=-ltcmalloc_minimalYesYesYesYesYesYes
configure option–disable-shared –with-mysqld-libs=-ltcmalloc_minimalNoneNone–disable-jemallocFailed with ICCNone

This might disappoint you. But the rebuilt software stacks show no improvement whatsoever in my benchmark.